rights - made the Catholic Church an inviting target for reform in the eighteenth century and for confiscation during the French Revolution. The loss of the church's property affected recruitment of the clergy and it damaged charitable and educational establishments in Germany. It did not help agriculture, though, because ecclesiastical institutions were already expert and efficient landlords.

Christianity did influence labour markets. British evangelicals began a great battle to end the slave trade, and a quieter campaign - this one waged by Protestants and Catholics alike - helped reduce the number of feast days and increase the amount oftime people spent at work. The additional labour helped purchase new consumer goods and it may even account for much ofthe growth in per capita income in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution in Britain. There are of course other links between Christianity and the economy, but at least one of the connections that scholars thought they perceived - Weber's Protestant ethic - now seems mistaken.


1. Ernst Wangermann, The Austrian achievement: 1700-1800 (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973)>pp- 73-105; Karl Otmar Freiherr von Aretin, VomDeutschenReichzumDeutschenBund, Deutsche Geschichte, ed. Joachim Leuschner (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1980), pp. 54-5; Derek Beales, Prosperity and plunder: European Catholic monasteries in the age of revolution, 1650-1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 179-230; Owen Chadwick, The popes and European revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981), pp. 250-2, 412-17.

2. Chadwick, Popes and European revolution, pp. 96-101, 503. For an example of declining vocations in Italy and their link to Joseph II's reforms, see Xenio Toscani, Il clero lombardo dall'ancien regime alla restaurazione (Bologna: Il Mulino, 1979), pp. 341-7, 359-60.

3. Hans-Joachim Voth, 'The longest years: New estimates of labor input in England, 17601830', Journal of economic history, 61 (2001), pp. 1065-82, and 'Time and workin eighteenth-century London', Journal of economic history, 58 (1998), pp. 29-58; Jan De Vries, 'Between purchasing power and the world of goods: Understanding the household economy in early modern Europe', in Roy Porter and John Brewer (eds.), Consumption and the world of goods (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 85-132, and 'The Industrial Revolution and the industrious revolution', Journal of economic history, 54 (1994), pp. 249-70. See also Gregory Clark and Ysbrand Van Der Werf, 'Workin progress? The industrious revolution', Journal of economic history, 58 (1998), pp. 840-3.

4. Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, 'Fondation', in Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres, ed. Denis Diderot, 28 vols. (Paris, 1751-72), vol. 7, pp. 72-5; Kathryn Norberg, Rich and poor in Grenoble, 1600-1814 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), p. 169.

5. D. M. G. Sutherland, The French Revolution and Empire: The quest for a civic order (Malden: Blackwell, 2003), pp. 194, 344-5; and personal communication with the author.

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