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and elections to papacy 21

and French Revolution 546-7, 582, 589

and Italian church 92-3

and Jansenism 308,309, 312,318, 324, 333

and Jesuits 302-4,307, 312, 314,316,317-18,

320, 592

suppression 4,19,31, 90,164,302,322-5 and nunciature 21, 28 and Ottoman Turks 20 and Uniate Churches 20-1 Papal State 20, 26, 93,104, 573, 589 Paracelsus/Paracelsianism 331,334 Paris: church buildings La Madeleine 238 Les Invalides 232, 234, 235, 241, 244 Notre-Dame 239, 244 Saint-Sulpice 238, 245 Val-de-Grace 232, 233, 235, 240, 243

parlement 310,311-14,317,322 University 156 Paris, Treaty (1763) 404, 409 parish missions 385-6 parish system 110,341, 431 Parker, Samuel 57-8

parlements, French 310, 311-14,317, 322, 540 Parliament, English, and Convocation 59, 61 Parma: and Jesuits 302,304, 321-2

and papacy 26, 93 Pascal, Blaise 8, 255,306,309,311,314 Passionei, Cardinal 311,317,318 Passowitz, Peace of (1718) 20 Paterson, John 587 Patrick, Simon 57 patronage: of the arts 94

98,100 in England 118 in Finland 118 in Germany 118 in Ireland 64 in Netherlands 118 in Scotland 68-9, 344,345, 360,365-6 in Sweden 117-19 patronato real 457, 475 Paul IV Pope 306 Paul V Pope 306

Paul, St Vincent de 91, 97,103,176 pedagogy, modern 153-4 Pelagius/Pelagianism 305, 306, 307 Penn, William 355,395, 397, 502 Pennsylvania: and Protestantism 35, 41, 43, 502

and Quakers 395, 502, 526 and revivalism 339-40 and toleration 355,367-8,397, 497, 511 Peréfix, Archbishop 178 periodicals 143, 324,364 Perrault, Claude 235, 238 persecution: in China 461-2, 464, 466 in England 270, 354-5 in France 9,110,123, 266-8, 270, 349 in Japan 4, 467-8, 470 in Korea 472 of Pietists 37 of Quakers 170,355 of Shakers 173 in South-east Asia 4, 450 Peru: and beateríos 383-4

and religious orders 378, 385 Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich 580 Peter II of Portugal 521

Peter Leopold, Duke of Tuscany 27, 93, 99,

105,324 Peters, Thomas 421 Petersen, Johanna Eleanora 171,172,173 Petite Eglise (France) 565, 567 Pforr, Franz 586 Philadelphian Society 171 Philip III of Spain 101 Philip IV of Spain 24,101 Philip V of Spain, and papacy 20 Philip, John 428-9

Philippines: and church and state 454-6 decline of the church 456-8 and female convents 181, 453-4 and Roman Catholicism 4, 451-3 philosophes 24, 75, 276, 289, 292, 350, 540 physico-theology 273, 285, 290 Piarists 96,100,106,154 Pietism 33-41, 42, 47,110-11, 329-31 and clergy 116,117,126 conventicles 7, 33-5, 36-7, 42,128 decline 40-1

and education 153,154,163 and Enlightenment thought 49 expulsion from Salzburg 5,17 and mission 4, 7,37, 39,181 and revivalism 579-80 and role of women 128,167,171-3,181 and science and learning 8 and sermons 128,142 in Silesia 335-6 see also enthusiasm; renewal Pietism (movement) 329,335, 367,396 pilgrimage 95,188,196, 200, 563, 569, 571 Pius V Pope 104 Pius VI, Pope 19, 21 and Austria 30 and France 325, 546-7, 581 and Jansenism 324 and Naples 27 and Portugal 26 Pius VII, Pope: and Jesuits 323, 592 and Napoleon 326, 564-6, 572-3, 582 return to Rome 592 Pluche, Abbé Noel-Antoine 273, 290 pluralism 64,122,347,364,396, 404 Plutschau, Heinrich 444, 482 pogroms, in Poland 331 Poiret, Pierre 333,338 Poland: architecture 236 bishops 95-6 clergy 100,107-8 and church and state 18

and Jews 331 partitions 20, 96,107 politics: and antislavery movement 528 and Christian Enlightenment 284, 287,

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