Shudras or Dalits, and the larger part of his church was reserved for them. Only a smaller transept was kept separate for the believers of all other castes. In 1714, Ziegenbalg visited Europe to sort out certain problems concerning the mission, and he returned to India two years later as a married man. He was not, however, to enjoy his new condition for long and he died on 23 February 1719, his health weakened as a result of the many difficulties he experienced with his colleagues in running the mission.

Another well-known missionary at Tranquebar was Benjamin Schultze who served in the mission on and off from 1720 through to 1740, and who received support from the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge. His efforts on behalf of the local church resulted in three Indian catechists being ordained pastors. John Philip Fabricius, who arrived in India in 1740, also spent two years at Tranquebar. Thereafter, he moved to Madras, joining the English mission there, though he always remained linked to the Danish mission. By 1750 he had translated the New Testament into Tamil and had composed a short Tamil grammar in English. When he died in 1791, he had served for over fifty years in India.

The greatest of all the Tranquebar missionaries was Christian Friedrich Schwartz, who arrived in Tranquebar, aged twenty-four, on 30 July 1750. He came to know and speak Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Persian, and Sanskrit, as well as a number of European languages, modern and classical. Noted for his holiness and purity, he was a preacher, teacher, diplomat, and statesman. He was highly regardedby soldiers, and the men ofthe English regiments delighted in his company. Schwartz eventually moved from Madras to Thanjavur, where he came to be treated as the royal priest of the city - able to exercise immense influence over the rajah and his political affairs. He also managed to be on good terms with the Muslim ruler, Hyder Ali of Mysore (1722-82). After the exit of the Jesuits from India in 1759, he looked after the areas in south India where the Jesuits had worked. He helped to form large congregations of Christians in Madras, Tranquebar, Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, and Palayamkottai. At his death in 1798, he had spent forty-eight years in India.

What was remarkable about such missionaries as Ziegenbalg, Schultze, and Schwartz was that they conducted much of their mission work through the local languages, promoted extensive lay participation, and placed the practical management of their missions largely in Indian hands. From its inception, the Tranquebar mission benefited from the services of European missionaries who were trained at the college founded by August Hermann Francke at the end of the seventeenth century in the German city of Halle. Francke had been a pioneer in education and had defined true theology as living religion.

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