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Jesuits in Spain. Touched off by an unpopular decree banning the wearing of Spanish sombreros and capes that facilitated theft, the violence vented itself against the drought-driven high prices of foodstuffs, against the mercenary Walloon Guard, and against unpopular Italian ministers in the Council of Castile, especially the marques de Squillace, minister of war and finance. While this uprising had similar sequels in cities in the provinces, the one in Madrid stood out by virtue of evidence of planning and participation by segments of the political class and their clients. Fleeing Madrid for the security of a royal residence in Aranjuez, Charles III granted a series of demands by the rioters only to rescind some of these concessions as soon as the conde d'Aranda, the new President of the Council of Castile, had re-established royal authority. With Aranda in power, the quest for hidden culprits began in earnest. Although none of the initial reports on the uprising pointed towards Jesuits in particular, by June Tanucci's letters bristled with accusations against them, as did those of one of his correspondents, Manuel de Roda y Arrieta, Charles III's Minister of Grace and Justice since 1765.

Charles entrusted the investigation of the 'origin, the instruments, and the promoters of the uprising' to an Extraordinary Council headed by the regalist or Spanish Gallican, Pedro Rodriguez Campomanes, since 1762 one of two 'fiscales' on the Council of Castile. The Extraordinary Council worked in secrecy through the summer and autumn of 1766, finally adopting Campomanes's report with royal permission on 29 January 1767 and recommending a course of action to yet another specially constituted body, or Junta, consisting of Roda and Aranda among others on 20 February 1767. Yet it could hardly have come as a surprise when, for 'urgent, and equally just and compelling causes', Charles III promulgated a decree expelling all Jesuits from his dominions dated 27 February 1767.16 The decree remained a secret of state until Aranda executed it with military precision, in Madrid on 30 March, in the rest of Spain on 2 April, and in the colonies as the winds and tides permitted. Although the decree provided the exiled fathers with a pension, their fate was to be even more lamentable than that of their Portuguese counterparts, given that Clement XIII refused to accept more Jesuits in the papal states while neither Genoa nor France could adequately provide forthem after Spanishboatsbegan unloading them on a Corsica even less hospitable than usual on account of an ongoing civil war.

That the Spanish Jesuits played the role of scapegoats for the Riot of the Hats and Cloaks is certain. Connections to Jesuits was the one all too convenient common denominator between otherwise disparate noble, clerical and pro-French opponents to the composition and policies of Charles III's reformist

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