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leaders, they remained popular with Creoles and indigenous groups alike into the late eighteenth century. The cults of local beatos (holy men), such as the Lima mulatto Martin de Porres (beatified in the nineteenth century) who combined ascetic rigour and charitable activity, continued to flourish much to the dismay of peninsular archbishops such as Francisco de Lorenzana of Mexico. Even the popular hagiography surrounding officially accepted holy people such as Saint Rose of Lima continued to stress the mystical union with Christ through the denial of the body.

In their pursuit of Spanish models of perfection, however, non-Hispanics encountered many roadblocks. Hispanic values emphasized that the proper avenue for those with deeper religious callings was entry into the secular priesthood and religious orders for men, and into formally organized cloistered convents for women. Bishops and the Inquisition looked with great suspicion on beatos and beatas who pursued sanctity outside these corporate structures. And racial and social prejudices excluded non-Hispanics from full participation in ecclesiastical institutions. Not until 1769 did the crown give official encouragement to non-Hispanic men to enter the diocesan priesthood or the regular clergy, and the move was opposed vigorously by the religious orders, in particular. In the end, few indigenous men, other than the totally accultur-ated sons of Indian caciques, were able to take advantage of the new official policy of openness. High dowries and racial prejudice likewise restricted full participation in the conventos grandes (the formally endowed convents following an established European rule) to elite Creole women. Indigenous women were allowed to live in these convents, but only as servants, never as the equals of the Creole nuns. The eighteenth-century establishment of a few convents controlled by indigenous women in Mexico did very little to change the overall picture.

Blocked from full access to the most important institutions, both men and women found alternatives. Lay communal organizations such as Cofradias provided alternatives for indigenous and mestizo men. Poor and middling women of all ethnic groups could pursue the ascetic ideals of cloistered life through institutions known as beaterios. In Lima alone, between 1669 and 1704, wealthy laymen provided endowments for ten such houses. One of these, founded by the Dominicans in 1669 to honour the newly canonized Saint Rose, was intended for Hispanic women. Two other very prominent houses, however, both founded in 1677, catered to women of other groups. Kurakas endowed the beaterio of Nuestra Sefiora of Copacabana for their daughters, and the Indian beato, Venerable Nicolas de Allyon, and his mestiza wife, Maria Jacinta de Montoya, foundedJesiis, MariayJose for non-Hispanic women. Both

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