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Hobbes, Thomas 48, 265, 273 Hohenzollern dynasty, and Protestantism 37-8 Holbach, Paul Heinrich Dietrich, Baron d' 6,

Holy Alliance 575, 591, 592, 593 Holy League (1684) 20 Holy Roman Empire: and church property 74 and confessional balance 43-8 and Napoleon 570, 582 see also Germany Hooker, Richard 57, 58, 61 Hope, Nicholas 112,116,126 Hopkins, Samuel 408, 419 Horsley, Samuel 63, 584 Hourwitz, Zalkind 218, 220 huacas (ancestor spirits) 381

Hufton, Olwen 558 Huguenots 22,142, 537 emigration 44, 45,342 in North America 338, 392, 393, 522 and use of vernacular 149 humanism 305-6

and biblical studies 246 and education 156,161 Hume, David 6, 48 Hungary: bishops 95 and clergy 100,106-7 and church and state 29, 44 liberation from Turks 20 and Protestantism 46,114,125,337, 351 Hutcheson, Francis 293, 294 Hutchinson, Anne 399 Huygens, Christiaan 252, 254 Hwang Sa-yong 472

iconography, Roman Catholic 228, 239, 240,

244, 246

identity, national: and American independence 505-6 and Great Awakening 9, 499 and religion 587-91 Ignatius Loyola see Loyola, St Ignatius Immortalists 167,174 imperialism, and mission 4 independence: in Latin America 390-1

in North America 508-9 Independents 346, 578 India 433-47 British rule 435 and education 446

literary and religious works 441-2, 482, 483-6

and Malabar Rites 482, 491-2 and mission 3,181, 434, 437-47, 593 and Orientalism 5 and Protestantism 444-7, 482 religious imagery 438, 439 and Roman Catholicism 436-44, 479-82 and Thomas Christians 435-7 see also Hinduism individualism 373, 407, 508 Indo-China 4 Indonesia 4, 449

Industrial Revolution 79, 81-2, 83-5 industrialization, and evangelical renewal 577, 593 infanticide 50 infinity 255-8

and Leibniz 254-5, 257

and Newton 254, 255, 256-7 and Voltaire 256-7 Innocent X, Pope 20 Innocent XI, Pope 20, 23, 93 Innocent XII, Pope 105, 459 Inquisition: in Japan 467-8 in Latin America 378, 382 in Portugal 17, 26, 90, 378, 443 in Spain 25, 90,141, 319, 592 internalization of faith 133,142,194, 201 Ireland: and church and state 64-7,360 and clergy 109,112,114,120,122,123 and millenarianism 584 penal laws 65 Protestant Ascendancy 67 and Protestantism 64, 65-6, 355, 360, 578 and revival 578, 579

and Roman Catholicism 64, 65, 67, 355, 356, 360, 366 and tithes 122 and toleration 366 see also Ulster Irish Toleration Act (1719) 66 Islam 476-9, 492 in India 433, 439 in Philippines 451 and Protestantism 478-9 and Roman Catholicism 477 Israel, Jonathan 203 Italy: and architecture 228-30, 236, 239 and bishops 92-3 and church property 74 and church and state 18, 20, 26-7, 92-3 and clergy 77, 98-9,104 and education 155,159,163 Napoleonic policies 570-1, 572, 581, 588

Jaher, Frederic Cople 567 Jainism 433 Jamaica 402

James II of Great Britain: and Protestantism 270 and Roman Catholicism 58, 265,355,356 James, John 231 Janicke, Johann 427, 579, 584 Jansen, Cornelius 178,306 Jansenism 7, 91, 98, 246

and church and state 18, 22, 23, 28, 30,350 and Convulsionaries 7, 582 and French Revolution 325, 544, 548 influence 289 in Italy 324

and Jesuits 304,305-17,318,325, 540

and papacy 308, 309, 312, 318, 324,333 and revolution 9 and role of women 167,178-9 and science 8, 256 sermons 142 and sexuality 179 in Spain 319,321 Japan: and mission 4, 486, 489 and persecution 4 religious art 469 secret Christians 467-70 Jefferson, Thomas 368, 499 and Deism 506-7

and Enlightenment thought 280, 498 and religious freedom 368, 511-12 Jerusalem, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm 49,

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