birth'.23 Enjoining secrecy, Guillaume Lambert, a Jansenist councillor in the parlement of Paris in regular contact with Choiseul, wrote to the abbe Clement a few days later in search of canonical advice about how the papacy might be able to annul a general's authority over an order as well as its members' solemn vows, and then seven weeks later to announce the arrival of a dispatch from Madrid 'in view of establishing a correspondence between the courts of Spain and France to obtain a bull from Rome against the Jesuits'.24 Whether in this case the cause of international Jansenism was being manipulated by Choiseul or vice versa is a pointless question; the two were obviously pursuing perceived religious and dynastic advantage, using each other among other means.

While Charles III fully endorsed the idea of concerted action - both noticing and lauding the relevant clause in the parlement's judgement of 9 May - his council came up with no plan for the papal 'diplomacy of the extinction' until it sketched out a scenario whereby France and Naples would join Spain in asking Clement XIII for the complete dismissal of his 'Janissaries' in late 1768.25 Nor, as things turned out, did France and Spain wish to associate too closely with Pombal's pro-English Portugal or ever succeed in enlisting the Austrian empress as more than a benevolent bystander in the anti-Jesuit cause despite the Habsburg alliance with France after 1756 and dynastic marriages with the Bourbon rulers of both Naples and Parma.

Although Choiseul was indeed the main architect of the anti-Jesuitical addition to the Bourbon family pact - the Jesuits proved easier to defeat than the English - the France of Louis XV was to be a less than enthusiastic partner in the enterprise after the fall of Choiseul from power in December 1770 and the purge of the parlements in its wake. If, in the end, the French king stayed the course, he did so only out of personal loyalty to his cousin Charles III while permitting the Archbishop of Paris to employ ex-Jesuits much to Spanish as well as Jansenist chagrin. And although the Bourbon powers spurred by Spain were indeed to pressure Clement XIII's successor Lorenzo Ganganelli as Clement XIV into dissolving the Society in July 1773, Choiseul's plan to generalize the French model by allowing all ex-Jesuits to return home as secularized 'citizens' did not prevail. Thus those Jesuits literally expelled from their countries would mainly remain so until the turn of the century when Pope Pius VII recognized the continued existence of the society in Russia and even Spain began to let its ex-Jesuits come home to die. In the era of the Napoleonic phase of the French Revolution, those Catholic dynastic states still standing faced rather larger threats than those posed by a few thousand aging ex-Jesuits from the Iberian peninsula plus Parma and Naples.

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