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assumed a duty to influence the state, treated each others' missionaries as civil threats, and opposed efforts by other Christians to move into their colonies.

In the province of Quebec along the St Lawrence River, French settlement proceeded more slowly than among the English. The arrival in 1659 of the first resident bishop, Francois-Xavier de Montmorency Laval, marked a transition in emphasis from missions among the Indians to civilization-building among the immigrants. By recruiting priests and other religious in France, by expanding the Seminary of Quebec as an active agent of clerical formation, and by institutionalizing the tithe (eventually fixed at 1/26 of the value of agricultural produce), Laval constructed the basis for an enduring Catholic culture. But by quarrelling with the leaders of local and French religious orders and with lay governors, he also established a pattern of institutional contention that his successor, Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Vallier, carried to new depths. Spiritually, New France was inspired during the second half of the century by a number of highly respected women religious. Marie Guyart, who took the name Marie de l'Incarnation after she was widowed and entered the Ursuline order, came to Canada in 1639 and immediately became a force through the schools she founded for French and Indian girls and through her mystical piety. Marguerite Bourgeois, who arrived at Montreal in 1653, not only organized the first church in this frontier outpost but also founded the Congregation of Notre Dame that would go on to long and influential service in teaching, health care, and much else.

Although it was not obvious at the time, the tide of colonial empire was flowing towards the British, in large part because they induced more colonists to emigrate than either France or Spain. One of the main reasons for that success was the space that minority religious groups found in the English colonies. Already before the end of the seventeenth century, the Society of Friends (or Quakers) had come to many North American locations. The Quakers had soon shed the radicalism of their founding period during the English Civil War and were consolidating rapidly under George Fox (1624-91), who visited the colonies in 1672-73. Besides providing forceful teaching about the Inner Light of Christ and the virtues of Christian pacifism, Fox also offered useful information about North America to one of the Quaker's most important converts, William Penn (1644-1718), the son of a famous British admiral. When in 1681 Penn acquired a huge tract of land in the New World and in 1682 laid out the city of Philadelphia, he set the stage for a further migration of Quakers.

By the time Quakers were moving to Pennsylvania, Dutch Reformed congregations in New York were prospering in ways not possible under the oppressive interference of Dutch colonial officials. The first settlers from Scotland,

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