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advances into Europe, the need for a strong Catholic political and military order in Hungary, Austria, and the lands bordering Bavaria and Saxony seemed compelling. But there were many Protestants in these Habsburg dominions; indeed, in Silesia Protestants were the majority and they remained numerous in eastern Hungary, where even the most liberal forms of Protestantism had been tolerated from the early seventeenth century In the principalities of Salzburg and Tyrol, a revived Protestant movement provoked the local authorities to expel many Protestants forcibly in the mid-i68os, while in Hungary, Habsburg policy in the 1690s sought to reduce Protestant rights to private worship only, mirroring contemporary policies in France. Religious repression, however, paradoxically contributed not to the demise of Protestantism, but to its awakening. Protestant religious revival in Salzburg, on the one hand, and an aggressive archbishop, on the other, culminated in a crisis in 1731 when the archbishop expelled some 20,000 Protestants from the principality. Many refugees found a home in Prussia, and the episode became a cause célèbre, with newspapers, sermons, and pamphlets denigrating the archbishop and calling for greater toleration. The unifying instincts of Charles VI, however, only hardened into a yet more repressive policy. An imperial resolution of 1733 denied the right of free emigration which had been given to religious minorities by the Peace of Westphalia, and it mandated military service, forced labour, and forcible transportation of Protestants as the means to control, if not to suppress, religious dissent.

Maria Theresa carried the repressive policies of Charles VI well into the second half of the century, even extending them by persecuting the Jews of Bohemia and Moravia. With the co-regency of Joseph II, however, a move towards greater tolerance became clearly discernible. The lessons of the widespread protests over Salzburg had not been lost on Joseph, and with his Patent of Toleration (1781) Lutheran and Reformed Protestants as well as Greek Orthodox Christians were granted the right to form congregations and erect church buildings, though towers and church bells were forbidden and non-Catholics were required to pay customary fees to Catholic priests. Protestants also gained property and civil rights, and Jews acquired freedom of worship in private, with further rights (of residence and education) extended to the Jews in 1782. Under these new conditions of freedom, Hungarian Protestants contributed to the renewal of Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia. However, as Joseph sought to protect the privileged status of the Catholic Church (even as he abolished religious orders and held Rome at arms length), the new spirit of toleration remained fragile. When, in 1783, a few hundred peasants in Bohemia denied the Trinity, the Emperor promised them a 'sound

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