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believed that a man's features were a product ofhis spiritual state; the true face beneath the mask would be revealed on the day of judgement but meanwhile some insight could be obtained by the study of physiognomy. Lavater had a remarkable gift for persuading men of goodwill that they agreed with him, and he never lost touch with the Pietist Stille im Lande; but what he exemplified was the disintegration of evangelicalism.

The increasing dependence of evangelicals upon empiricism increased their ability to absorb revivalism, a very different thing. The first in the field, the Silesians, moreover, found the rapprochement ofrevivalism with church Pietism eased by the supply of preachers, literature and the backing of the remaining local Protestant aristocracy, all organized by Francke. Silesian Protestantism, outside Breslau, seemed in the late seventeenth century to face the same kind of annihilation as that in Bohemia and Moravia after the Protestant defeat in the battle of White Mountain. The miners and shepherds in the Silesian hills, however, were not entirely helpless, for they could count on the support of the Berlin government which had long-term ambitions in Silesia; and in 1707, Sweden's attempt to break the mould of international politics brought additional relief. In that year, by the Peace of Altranstadt, Charles XII obtained the return of 120 Protestant churches in the indirectly governed principalities; moreover, six new 'Grace' churches were to be built in the Habsburg family lands, and to these 'Grace' churches and to some other churches schools were to be attached. But already the situation had changed. For lack of churches the Swedish troops had held their church parades in the open air, and when they withdrew, the children of Glogau gave a new meaning to the word 'campmeeting' by following suit, gathering round their elected leaders in prayer and singing, often against parental opposition. The hazard of this 'uprising of the children', as it was called, was that the object of their intercessions, the return of Protestant churches and schools, was politically very sensitive. The Pietist publicist, August Hermann Francke, however, madethebest ofthe story in the European press, and got the most important of the 'Grace' churches erected in Teschen in Upper Silesia. Here institutional Protestantism had gone to pieces, but there was thought to be a congregation of about 40,000 in the hills round about. For the Teschen project Francke recruited some of his ablest assistants. They first built not a church, but a large house with cellars for the wine trade, a ground floor for a bookshop and stock room, a first floor with accommodation for three preachers, and a second floor with a seminary for nobles, in short a miniature Halle, uniting propaganda and commerce at the point of greatest threat to confessional survival. The key figure was Johann Adam Steinmetz (1689-1762), a successful revivalist from

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