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and loyal workers and also to establish an educational hierarchy in which the different levels worked well together.

For the Protestant regions, historians have rightly emphasized the role of the Pietist movement in the creation of the University of Halle (1694). But it should also be noted that the margrave of Brandenburg, Frederick III of Hohenzollern, was himself a Calvinist who wanted to found a Lutheran university that was clearly distinguishable from the orthodox Lutheran universities of Leipzig and Wittenberg in the neighbouring electorate of Saxony. In fact, Halle soon became the principal educational institution for officials of the Prussian church and state. The Pietist faculty of theology developed as an effective centre of resistance against Lutheran orthodoxy. But at the same time the innovative faculty of law began teaching cameralist theories of political economy, while the philosophy faculty introduced natural law. The choice of German over Latin as the teaching language also contributed in modernizing the curriculum.14 Borrowing many features from the Halle model, the Elector of Hanover founded the University of Gottingen in 1737 as a state institution with the primary aim of training civil servants. It attracted both members of the nobility (who throughout the eighteenth century represented 10 to 15 per cent of the student population - a considerable percentage for the period) and of the rich middle classes. But it did not refuse foreign Catholic students, who were granted the right of openly practising their faith. Three factors in particular helped make Gottingen a model of the modern university. First, the traditionally privileged position of theology over the other faculties was weakened from the outset because university statutes forbade denunciation of professors for 'heretical' opinions. The curbing of the power of censorship tended less to undermine the church's authority than to eliminate theological quarrels, especially between orthodox and Pietist Lutherans. Second, the state reserved the right to nominate professors, the faculties being allowed merely to make nominations: the traditional powers of the university were thus greatly reduced. Finally, the teaching offered was substantially broadened: thus, the law faculty, the heart of the university, taught not only Roman law, but also German customary law, feudal law, constitutional law, imperial jurisprudence, and the history of law. So too the philosophy faculty, while continuing to offer first-year foundation courses, now proposed a wide range of new disciplines: empirical psychology, natural law, politics, natural history, pure and applied mathematics (including civil and military architecture), history and its related fields (geography and diplomacy), and both ancient and modern languages.

In the Catholic regions, the reform movement began in the 1720s with the sweeping decrees of Victor-Amedeus II of Piedmont which forbade all

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