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associated as they were with the ultra-Catholic side of it and with theories that justified the assassinations of supposed 'tyrants', especially when the papacy declared them to be 'heretics'. Had not Henry IV had to expel the Jesuits from France after a Jesuit-inspired attempt on his life in 1594?

But by the mid-seventeenth century the papacy was no longer the kind of threat to this monarchy that it had represented from the Flemish wars through the civil wars of religion. To the contrary, the monarchy in the person of Louis XIV now perceived the papacy as an indispensable ally in its action against the 'republican' threat supposedly posed by a Jansenism that, like Protestantism, he readily associated with civil war, in the Jansenist case with the mid-century uprising known as the Fronde. From the arrival of Pierre Coton at the Louvre as Henri IV's confessor in 1604, the Jesuit confessor and preacher became part of the Baroque furniture at the Bourbon court.

It was hence a Bourbon monarchy constantly counselled by Jesuits that took the field against the new religious threat, successfully soliciting from the papacy a series of condemnations of 'Jansenism' beginning with Cum occasione in 1653 and culminating in Unigenitus in 1713. The first of these condemned five propositions reputedly extracted from Augustinus but that were really un-nuanced summations of the book's principal tendencies - that 'Jesus Christ did not die for all men', for example - while the last singled out 101 word-for-word statements from Pasquier Quesnel's Reflections morales on the New Testament. Along with this bull, the most effective instrument of persecution was the Formulary obtained from Pope Alexander VII and made French law that required all would-be benefice-holders to swear that the five propositions were to be found in Augustinus as well as in the 'heretical' sense in which they had been condemned.

The result was a religious-political set-to embroiling clergy, monarchy, and royal courts of law that reached its apogee around 1730, just when religious conflict was on the wane everywhere else in Enlightenment Europe. By the time the Jansenists got their long-sought revenge in the early 1760s, they had witnessed the destruction of their spiritual home of Port-Royal in 1709, replaced Protestants as the single most numerous habitues of the Bastille, and sustained the sting of at least 40,000 lettres de cachet and a systematic purge of their presence from the clergy, religious orders and congregations, and sundry seminaries, colleges and universities beginning with the Sorbonne by stages. Not even laypeople escaped the crossfire because, in contrast to anywhere else in Catholic Europe, Jansenism put down substantial lay roots in France, especially in Paris and other northern cities like Troyes and Auxerre. In one of the most unedifying phases of the controversy occurring just before the suppression of

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