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reform from the top through action by the town council, and predictably failed. He then sought to develop a spiritual leaven for improvement through the means of his collegium pietatis, and in his celebrated short work, Pia Deside-ria, he described a programme of reform which did not rely upon state action. His new approach included the belief that the Jews were deterred from their millennial role by the decayed state of the church. Renew the church and they would come in. There was, to be sure, little evidence for this view, but it contributed crucially to the development of the evangelical mind by enabling it to postpone its obsession with Jewish questions in favour of mission in general. The conversion of the Jews, in any event, proved a very slow business. Spener's successors took to preaching to Jews as individuals and they gave the process institutional backing at Halle. Count Nicholas von Zinzendorf, founder of the Moravian Brethren, invested far more energy into converting Jews than the results ever warranted, and insisted that since technical millenarian questions had formed no part of the original apostolic preaching, the Moravians should follow suit. Thus he too escaped from the constrictions which the Orthodox Lutheran theologies had placed upon both space and time, and he instilled new energies into mission. The same slow progress is revealed in the English evangelist, John Wesley. He could write about the Jews in almost the old style; but when he became excited about the progress of the revival, he would use the conventional post-millennial language about the latter-day glory with all the optimism of Jonathan Edwards. Moreover, both Wesley and Zinzendorf had learned from the German Pietist, August Hermann Francke (whose educational and philanthropic institutions at Halle were institutions of neither church nor state) that it was possible to apply a principle of contract to the kingdom of God, and without it the missions which were eventually launched from Herrnhut, Basel and London would never have set forth at all. The latter years of the eighteenth century, which saw the original evangelical mixture falling apart, also saw another generation of evangelicals becoming obsessed with the millennium, and creating new battering-rams against the Jews; the liberation afforded by Spener's 'hope of better times' had its limits.

The final feature of the evangelical mind might be inferred from its roots in Arndt and the vogue of meditation, that is, its commitment to mysticism. There had always been an undercurrent of mysticism in the Christian world, and now when Lutheran Orthodoxy was in the toils, its influence dramatically increased. A Protestant historical pedigree for 'the mystical theology' was created by the radical German Protestant theologian, Gottfried Arnold, and upheld by Spener against the Lutheran Orthodox. Francke translated the seventeenth-century Spanish Quietist, Miguel de Molinos, into Latin for

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