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of the emotions and passions so that punishments would be administered without anger or impatience, but only in a manner that was 'pure, charitable, just, appropriate, moderate, non-aggressive and prudent'.9 Manuals produced for teachers' use, such as Conduite des ├ęcoles chr├ętiennes (1720), provided such a wealth of detail that Brothers had no need to reflect on what to do or how to do it in a given situation: their skill lay solely in carrying out the rules.

A third point concerning the primary schools relates to the more general movement among Enlightened governments to reform education. Even if this domain received less attention than reforms seeking to modernize other areas of traditional state control - the army, finance, justice - it is clear that a growing number of laws in the second half of the eighteenth century in the German states, in Austria and on the Italian peninsula sought to place the entire educational system under state control: children, it was argued, should belong to the state. At the core of such reforms was the creation of teacher-training schools, or Normalschulen, an initiative of Ignaz von Felbiger, provost of the Augustinian canons of Sagan. Felbiger was directly inspired by the Berlin pastor Hecker, when in 1765 he proposed his regulations for elementary schools in Silesia - following a request of the Prussian governor. As early as 1764-65, a 'model' school for the training of schoolmasters was created in Breslau. But it was especially in Austrian lands that Felbiger was able to develop his plans. The general school decree of 6 December 1774 provided for the creation in each province of a 'normal' school which was to serve as the model for all other schools and guarantee the training of teachers for Catholic schools.10 Eleven hours per week of 'theory' were devoted to religion (the catechism, the Bible, Christian ethics), reading, writing, and arithmetic, in a course of study that might last two or three months. But the most important training came through teacher practice, in which future masters learned Felbiger's methods either in the normal school itself or in nearby institutions. The success of the teaching reforms was due to the rapid establishment of such schools not only in the Austrian provinces and in the Slavic and Hungarian domains under the Habsburg crown, but also in the Austrian Netherlands and in Lombardy -all of which helped train a large number of new schoolmasters during the final decades of the eighteenth century.11 Moreover, the effect of Felbiger's model clearly went well beyond the Habsburg territorial boundaries. One finds elements of his method in Bavaria, in the electorates of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier, and in the bishoprics of Eichstatt and Speyer. In all of these areas normal schools would play a pioneering cultural role under the tutelage of clerics versed in the Catholic Enlightenment.

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