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1760 and cranked out anti-Jesuit literature in Carvalho's service.12 Which is to say that if events in Portugal resounded in Gallican France, they did not do so without French Jansenist help.

Aside from like publicists, one of the chief sources of Carvalho's anti-Jesuitism consisted of the reports of his cousin Francisco de Almeida e Mendonga, the Portuguese ambassador to the Curia, who himself derived much of his information from the same Roman Augustinians - Bottari, Pas-sioinei, etc. - who were advising the French through abbe Clement.13 Indeed, the printer Niccolo Pagliarini, employed by Almeida to publish Carvalho's Brief Account of his case against the Jesuits, underwent arrest and ruin in Rome by reason of publishing Jansenist literature there. When he resurfaced in Lisbon as the official printer of the Most Faithful King of Portugal, he had less the Almighty than Almeida to thank.

As the arrest of this Roman printer eloquently testifies, neither Clement XIII nor his secretary of state Torrigiani were swallowing Carvalho's version of events. Ever more convinced ofthe Portuguese Jesuits' corporate innocence, they dug in their heels in defence of the besieged society, braving rupture with the Portuguese court on its behalf. Nor did the parlements' anti-Jesuit offensive in France succeed in daunting this papal defiance. To the contrary, Clement XIII seized this occasion to rise publicly to the defence of the maligned society, addressing briefs to this effect to both Louis XV and the French bishops in their General Assembly meeting in June 1762. While the papal plea had little effect on the weak-willed king, it found in the Gallican episcopate a more resonant reception. Having long been nominated by the monarchy on account of their support for Unigenitus, the Gallican bishops had already sounded off in favour of the threatened society when consulted on its 'utility' by the monarchy in September 1761; they were to do so again in response to Clement XIII's Apostolicum Pascendi in defence of the Jesuits in 1765. In good part the product of the Jansenist controversy, this stance in favour of the Jesuits - and apparently against their king - of the overwhelming majority of Gallican bishops is yet another structural difference between France and the rest of Catholic Europe where, with few exceptions, the national episcopacies sided with their monarchies against Clement XIII and Torrigiani.

By 1761, it was already becoming clear that international Jansenism's grand strategy of concentrating all its fire on the Jesuits in order later to persuade the papacy to revisit some of the contested doctrinal sites was badly boomerang-ing if not backfiring. Far from driving a wedge between the Jesuits and the papacy, the anti-Jesuit offensive was so far bringing them closer together. The worst Jansenist fears on the doctrinal front were to be realized in July 1761

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