same general purpose of Christianization, a considerable amount of jealousy and exclusiveness existed among them.

In 1703, the Propaganda erected the Prefecture of Tibet-Hindustan, entrusting it to the Capuchins. They were able to maintain a presence in Lhasa from 1707 to 1745, when religious persecution forced them to move back to Kathmandu in Nepal, where the order had been established since 1715. But ultimately, in 1769, political unrest forced them to leave this kingdom as well and to relocate in India. In the meantime, many Nepalese Christians and catechumens relocated to Bettiah, Bihar in 1745. The Prefecture of Tibet-Hindustan was elevated into a vicariate in 1812.

The Jesuits moved into Tibet even earlier, with a mission at Tsaparang which ended in 1641. In 1713, a fresh start was made by two Jesuits, Ippolito Desideri and Manoel Freyre, even though the Capuchins considered Tibet part oftheir mission field and out of bounds to all other orders. Desideri was soon left alone in Tibet, and in the face of severe Capuchin opposition to his presence, he was ordered out of Lhasa in 1719. He was a great geographer, and his account of the mission was very reliable, revealing a deep understanding of Tibetan society and literature.

The first convent for women in the east, the convent of Santa Monica, was established in Goa in 1606, largely through the efforts of Archbishop Dom Aleixio de Menezes. It was intended mainly for the widows of Portuguese soldiers. Although tensions prevailed for some years between two factions within the cloister, the nuns continued to perform their regular religious duties, excelled in literary and musical works, and were also known for their skill in the fine arts and in culinary innovations.

The year 1759 marked the beginning of a difficult period for the Jesuits in both Portugal and in India. In that year, the Marquis of Pombal, virtual ruler of Portugal, managed to have the Society suppressed. The order's extensive landed properties and their houses in Goa were confiscated. In 1760,127 Jesuits, working in various parts of India, were arrested and shipped back to Europe from Goa. Following the suppression, Pombal pursued a number of popular reforms in the colony. He disbanded the Inquisition in 1774 (it had conducted over seventy autos-da-fe, or sessions of examination, since its beginnings in Goa). He revamped the educational system and worked to improve conditions for the local clergy. Priests came to be selected for parish posts on the basis of their learning and virtue rather than on their race.

Disturbances continued in Goa. The Portuguese presence there did not remain unchallenged and there were many popular revolts. In 1654, for example, Dom Mathias de Castro, unhappy over being bypassed for an episcopal

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