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Duke of Baden. Jung-Stilling's novel, Heimweh, published in 1794, exercised a profound influence with its view of life as pilgrimage. The revival also found support from the writings of the Swiss Christian educationalist, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, with his passionate belief that all children, regardless of social background, had an equal claim on educational opportunity.

The evangelical activity spread among the Lutherans in Scandinavia. In eastern Denmark and western Norway, the 1790s saw the beginnings of a rural lay evangelical movement, with a Pietist character. Hans Nielson Hauge, a farmer's son, experienced conversion in 1796 and embarked on a career as an itinerant lay preacher. He travelled some 10,000 miles over the next six years, preaching almost daily and criticizing what he viewed as the dead orthodoxy of the established church. From 1804 to 1814, the civil authorities intermittently imprisoned him for breaking the laws against lay preaching. Nonetheless, he organized a large popular movement in the rural areas, training followers as lay preachers and establishing mills and workshops to provide employment. A Danish Evangelical Society was formed in 1801. In Sweden, a revival movement emerged about 1800, associated with 'New Readers', lay people who read and interpreted Scripture to households in the scattered farmsteads. An Evangelical Society was organized under Moravian influence in Stockholm in 1808 and awakenings occurred in the south-west of Sweden from about 1810, associated with the impassioned preaching of Jacob Otto Hoof. Revivals, rooted in Pietism, occurred in Finland from about 1800; a leading figure was the farmer and lay preacher, Paavo Ruotsalainen, who was converted in 1796. There were further revivals after 1800 in the Baltic regions of Estonia and Latvia, inspired largely by the work of Moravians.

In Catholic regions, new movements of popular devotion emerged in the 1790s. Antipathy to both the anti-Catholic campaigns of the French revolutionaries and to reforms imposed by the Habsburg state on the Catholic Church contributed to a popular devotional movement among Catholics in the mountainous Tyrol region in the early 1790s. Despite initial opposition from the imperial government, the movement, which drew inspiration from the cult of the Sacred Heart, gained a large following - with processions, feasts and passion plays, and visions of saints and the Virgin. There were further revivals of popular devotion to the Virgin in northern and central Italy. During one six-month period in 1796, the Papal States had 114 reported incidents of statues of the Madonna moving her eyes, of which twenty-four were judged by the authorities as miraculous.9 In 1801-02, Fr Luigi Mozzi, a former Jesuit, led a series of popular missions in the diocese of Treviso, spreading popular devotion to both the Virgin and the Stations of the Cross.

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