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established a community in Rome in i8ii, and sought to recover the styles and techniques of medieval Christendom.

Elements of both the millenarian enthusiasm for Christ's return and the Romantic longings for the unity of Christendom can be discerned in the Bible Society movement which swept across Europe in the early decades of the nineteenth century. The British and Foreign Bible Society was founded in London in 1804. Its aim was breathtaking in its simplicity and ambition: it would unite Christians of all denominations in the quest to provide every inhabitant of the world with access to a Bible, without note or comment, and printed in his or her native language. As the influence of the Bible reached into every home and heart, it would convert the world's population to a pure, scriptural Christianity, uniting all peoples in a common faith and bringing an end to war, oppression and injustice. The world would be made ready for the Second Coming. The London parent society promoted the organization of a network of auxiliary societies across Britain and Europe. The first continental auxiliary, the German Bible Society, was established at Nuremberg in May 1804. It moved its headquarters in 1806 to Basel, which became the principal centre for the printing and distribution of Bibles in central Europe. With the patronage of Frederick William III of Prussia, a Prussian Bible Society was established in i805 in Berlin. It survived the defeat and occupation ofPrussia in 1806-07, and was active in distributing Bibles in Poland and Bohemia. Largely through the efforts of a Scottish agent, the Congregationalist John Paterson, the Bible Society movement was carried across Scandinavia from 1807. In the summer of 1812, amid the momentous events of the invasion by Napoleon's grand army, Paterson arrived in Russia, visiting Moscow only days before the city fell to the French. Gaining the support of Prince Alexander Golitzin, minister for public worship and a mystical Pietist, Paterson convinced Tsar Alexander to approve the formation of a Russian Bible Society in January 1813. It soon established auxiliaries in Russia and Poland, becoming one ofthe most influential forces for publishing and popular education in Russia during the coming decade.

Religion, resistance, and national identity

The advance of the revolutionary armies beyond the borders of France in the i790s had initially been welcomed by many in the occupied districts. They had looked on the French as liberators from oppressive regimes and antiquated social structures, and as representatives of Enlightenment thought and revolutionary ideals. Many others, however, hated the French invaders. They resented

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