smaller towns found it increasingly difficult to attract the major teaching congregations. In certain areas such as Brittany, schools remained in the hands of secular priests - frequently through the patronage of the bishops who used them in part as diocesan seminaries. As for the staffing of Protestant schools, one must be wary of the oft-repeated descriptions of a poverty-stricken and unstable corps of teachers who only retained their functions while waiting for pastoral positions to open up. A closer look at specific teaching careers reveals that masters in Latin schools remained much longer than historians previously suspected. Thus, in the Duchy of Brunswick in the third quarter of the seventeenth century, two-thirds of Latin schoolmasters stayed more than five years at the same posts and location, and four out of ten remained more than ten years.

Three additional points can be made regarding secondary schools of the period. First, the differences in the social profile of students in the various schools seem to have increased, especially through the impact of boarding schools. Such institutions, along with private tutorships, represented the social and moneyed elites' preferred methods of schooling. During the eighteenth century, a third of the English gentry and quarter of English peers received private home education. Private tutelage and boarding schools were often combined, moreover, when pupils moved into schools along with their tutors. For the privileged by the late seventeenth century it was no longer a question of uncertain lodgings in a private home or in the teachers' rooms - as had usually been the case in the sixteenth century - but of buildings specifically constructed for this purpose. The seminaria nobilium or collegi dei nobili in the Italian peninsula; the great Jesuit and Oratorian boarding schools in France (La Fleche, Louis-le-Grand, Pont-a-Mousson, or Juilly); and the nine English public schools, all offered a wide range of complementary classes. In addition to the traditional curriculum, other skills were taught, including dancing, singing, drawing, the arts of war (fencing and horseback riding), and studies of use to both nobles and tradesmen (maths, accounting, calligraphy). Boarding schools offered the privileged two key advantages. Firstly, children were guaranteed a strict moral and intellectual education under supervision; secondly, they gained significant worldly experience through a controlled elite environment. It was not by chance that a large proportion of the English elite passed through the public schools, with Eton and Westminster ranked as the most preferred.

A second point concerns the progressive differentiation of the subject matter taught during the period. The humanities curriculum devised in the sixteenth

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