application; in the eighteenth, this correlation was eroded, just as the tendency of Presbyterianism to fragment prevented any nationalist flowering like that promoted by the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland: there was to be no Scots version of Daniel O'Connell.

In the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the government of the United Kingdom deliberately used its established churches to forward its social policy, acknowledging clergy as agents of the state in the work of social improvement and political stabilization. This had already worked in England, Wales, and Scotland; after 1801, it was applied to Ireland. By 1829 it had failed there, and a candid acceptance of its failure by the London government meant fundamental redefinition in England also. None the less, in 1780, even in the middle of a momentous war of religion in the North American colonies, the extent of the later challenge to the establishment ideal was seldom foreseen.


1. [William Warburton], The alliance between church andstate (London, 1736); here citedfrom the 1766 edn, in Richard Hurd (ed.), The works of the Right Reverend William Warburton D.D., 12 vols. (London, 1811), vol. 7, pp. 241-2, 250.

2. William Paley, The principles of moral and political philosophy (London, 1785), p. 556.

3. W[illiam] S[ancroft], A sermon preached in S. Peter's Westminster, on the first Sunday in Advent (London, 1660), p. 39.

4. [Gilbert Burnet], An impartial survey and comparison of the Protestant religion, as by law established (London, 1684).

6. Robert Sanderson, Episcopacy (as established by law in England) not prejudicial to regal power (London, 1661), pp. 13-15, 21, 32, 40.

7. [William Lloyd], A seasonable discourse shewing the necessity of maintaining the established religion, in opposition to popery (London, 1673), pp. 10-17.

8. The Works of Mr. Richard Hooker, ed. Isaak Walton (London, 1666), pp. 447-8.

9. [Simon Patrick], A friendly debate between a Conformist and a Non-Conformist (London, 1669).

10. [Samuel Parker], A discourse ofecclesiastical politie (London, 1670), pp. ii, 10, 112-13, 174, 199-200.

11. [Thomas Comber], Religion and loyalty supporting each other (London, 1681), pp. 37,39-40, 59.

12. John Potter, A discourse of church-government (London, 1707), sigs. A2r-A3v, pp. 2, 11-12, 53,124,139-40, 213.

13. Edmund Gibson, Codex Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani, 2 vols. (London, 1713), vol. 1, pp. i, iv, xvii-xix.

14. Thomas Wood, An institute of the laws of England (London, 1720; 2nd edn, 1722), pp. 2, 4,

15. Richard Burn, Ecclesiastical law, 2 vols. (London, 1763), vol. 1, p. 406.

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