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To Jesuits on the contrary, the prominence given by what they pejoratively called 'Jansenism' to the Augustinian doctrines of predestination and 'efficacious' grace smacked of 're-boiled' Calvinism, while the retention of all the Catholic sacraments made the Jansenist 'heresy' even more dangerous because it came disguised as Catholicism. Tantamount to an attempt to alienate the faithful from the Eucharist and the sacrament of penance, Jansenism was in the Jesuit imagination no less than a plot to destroy Catholicism from within, a plot denounced as such as early as the 1640s by the Jesuit Francois Pinthereau and as late as the French Revolution by Marchetti.5

For their part, Jansenists were no less convinced of the existence of a plot, this one perpetrated by Jesuits to eliminate all their competitors in the field of education and the confessional by inventing a heresy called 'Jansenism' with which to incriminate them in the eyes of the spiritual and temporal powers of the day. Jansenists never tired of maintaining that 'Jansenism' was an 'imaginary' heresy invented by the Jesuits in order to discredit all who would not bow the knee to them within the Catholic Church. The only real heresy afoot within the church in the Jansenist imagination was that of Augustine's fifth-century foe Pelagius as rehabilitated by the Jesuits who, modernizing it as Molina's 'Molinism', made salvation dependent on the human will and scaled down the moral demands of the gospel in order to accommodate this unconverted will. Contenting themselves with only fear for the wages of sin instead of the contrition required by the gospel, the Jesuits were able to woo fundamentally unrepentant 'penitents' into their confessionals, from the level of the parish where they usurped the priest's functions to the royal court where they used their influence to persecute and dominate.

For Jansenists always professed to believe that the Jesuits espoused Pelagian-ism not for its own sake but as a doctrinal instrument of domination. Even the unique fourth vow of obedience sworn by professed Jesuits to the papacy was to the purpose of constructing their own 'universal monarchy' under the cover of papal authority, not to do the real work of the Holy See. The ultimate heresy at work was thus the 'desire to dominate', denounced in the very first pages of Augustine's The City of God.

Dominate the Jesuits did, at least until the mid-eighteenth century. In the competition for the favour of a divine-right and ever more 'absolute' monarchy, a society whose theology defended the prerogatives of the human will and countenanced the possibility of courtly incarnations of the divine enjoyed advantages over a religious movement that saw pomp as concupiscence and whose similarity to Calvinism conjured up nightmares of the recent religious civil wars. Yet Jesuits also evoked the traumatic memories of this conflict,

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