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and Jews 51, 211-15

in Netherlands 171,192,353-4, 357,363-4 in North America 353,367-8, 394,395,396 and reunion 361

and Roman Catholicism 16-17,356 in Scotland 355,356,365-6 in theory and practice 357 Toleration Act (1689) 356, 358, 362, 363, 406 Toleration Act (1719) 366 Toleration Act (1780) 366 Tories, and toleration 359,360 Torrigiani 317-18

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de 440,

463, 482

trade: and African Americans 424-6

and mission 416, 417, 444, 446-7, 449 travel literature 270-1 Trent, Council 19,31,116 and bishops 92, 94, 96, 98-9 and female convents 101,105,175,181 and iconography 244 and Jesuit-Jansen controversy 305 and marriage 180 and parish clergy 25,193,309 and sermons 130,133 Trevecca College (Wales) 117 Trier, principality 27-8 trompe l'œil painting 243 Tübingen University 113,116 Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques 75, 79, 291 Turkey see Ottoman Empire Turrettini, Jean-Alphonse 285-6, 291, 295 Tuscany, Grand Duchy 27, 324 and clergy 92, 93, 99,105

Ulster: and Methodism 578

and Presbyterianism 65,112,113,115,119,

123,125, 360, 367 and revivalism 339-40 ultramontanism: French 318, 546, 566, 572 German 31

and Jesuits 318,324, 325 opposition to 28 Uniate churches: and papacy 20-1

in Poland 95,100,107 Unigenitus (papal bull, 1713) 98,162,308, 317,

326, 350

appeals against 309 and Louis XIV 22, 23 and Louis XV 312-13 Unitarianism 364, 365, 408, 501 United Provinces see Netherlands United States: and church and state 514 Constitution 367, 368, 497, 498, 509, 510-12 and Protestantism 497-8, 578 and religion 510-14 and Roman Catholicism 497 and slavery 514, 526 see also Declaration of Independence universalism, and Jews 215 universities 162

Catholic 76,159,315 and education of clergy 113-14,115,116 and Enlightenment 50 in Germany 163 in North America 399 Protestant 36,37, 41,113-14,163 Ursulines 175,176,181, 395 usefulness of Christianity 284-8, 290, 295,

usury 81

Utrecht, Treaty (1713) 24, 403

Valignano, Alessandro 439, 487, 489 Van Kley, Dale 541

Vanderkemp, John Theodore 427-8, 429

Venn, Henry 334, 428

Vernes, Jacob 294-5

Versailles, Royal Chapel 235, 239

Victor-Amedeus II of Piedmont 163

Vietnam, and mission 181, 449-50

Virgin of Guadaloupe 379

Virgin, Peter 120

Virginia 392

and American Indians 401

and Anglicanism 354, 393-4, 404, 503

early settlement 393 and toleration 367-8, 511 'virgins', in China 465-6 visitation, episcopal 195, 455-6, 457, 458 Voetianism 338

Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet): and anticlericalism 289 and deism 6 and Islam 478 and Jews 217 and Newton 256-7 and sermons 141 and toleration 223, 272 and utopian travel literature 271 voluntaryism: in Scotland 69

in United States 513 Vovelle, Michel 185,186, 536

Wake, William 61, 361 Waldensians 44 Wales: and clergy 113,117 and established church 55 Protestant revival 7, 343-4, 346, 347 Walpole, Sir Robert 60,345 War of American Independence 497, 500

and loyalists 502, 504-5 Warburton, William 54, 61-3, 66-7, 285, 291,

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