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Pierre Marteau, 1687), p. 263, in Wolfenbuttel Library, Qu N 895r, bound together with Rome anti-Chretienne (1687) and Le Paralelle de la persecution d'Antiochus l'Illustre contre les juifs, avec celle qu'on exerce a present en France contre les Protestans (1687).

9. For an extremely early usage of 'the public' in French, see L'autheur du Moine secularise se retractant, et faisant Amande-honoraire (Cologne: Pierre Martheau [sic], 1686), p. 6 ff. in Wolfenbuttel Library, Tq 54.

10. For the very earliest of the Pierre Marteau books which do just that, see Les Devoirs des Grands (Cologne: Pierre Marteau, 1666) and Recueil de plusiers pieces servans a l'histoire moderne (Cologne: Pierre du Marteau, 1663).

11. For a heterosexual, bawdy anticlerical yarn, see LeConvent...desfrerespacifiques. Nouvelle Galante et veritable (Cologne: Pierre le Blanc, 1685).

12. La chronique scandaleuse, ou Paris ridicule de c.le petit (Cologne: Pierre de la Place, 1668), in verse.

13. Jacques Sadeur, Nouveau voyage de la terre australe (Paris: Claude Barbin, 1693) [almost certainly a false imprint], pp. 70-2, in Wolfenbuttel Library, Qu N 1013.2. Next to the Australian voice in the text someone wrote in 'Gabriel de Foigny'. This text is bound with tracts published by 'Pierre Marteau', Voyage d'Espagne (1667) and Relation de l'Estat et Gourvernement d'Espagne (1667); also, in the same volume, Madame d'Aunoy, Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne (The Hague: Moetjens, 1695).

14. L'Infidelite convaincu, ou les avantures amoureuses (Cologne: Pierre Marteau, 1676), in Wolfenbuttel Library, bound with Hattige ou les Amours du Roy de Tamaran nouvelle (Cologne: Simon l'Africain, 1676) (attributed to Gabriel Brémond).

15. [M. Heliogenes], A Voyage into Tartary (London: T. Hodbkin, 1689), p. 60.

16. Margaret C. Jacob, The radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, freemasons and republicans, 2nd edn (Morristown, NJ: Temple Publishers, 2003); also Justin Champion, Republican learning (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003).

17. Champion, Republican learning, pp. 156-7.

18. John Cleland, Memoirs ofa woman of pleasure, ed. Peter Sabor (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), quoting from pp. 102, 80, 64.

19. Nouvelles libertés de penser (Amsterdam, 1743): 'Le philosophe' is one of five tracts printed in this collection; cf. J. O'Higgins, S. J., Anthony Collins (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1970), pp. 216-17.

20. Roy Porter, 'Mixed feelings: The Enlightenment and sexuality in eighteenth-century Britain', in Paul-Gabriel Brouce(ed.), Sensuality ineighteenth-century Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982), p. 15.

21. The OED has this happening in English after 1660. In French 'obscene' was coming to express the specifically 'impure' in the 1690s: see [Audry de Boisregard], Reflexions sur l'usage present de la langue françoise (Paris, 1692), p. 242.

22. 'Commonplace Book of William Stukeley', preserved in the Spalding Gentlemen's Society, Spalding, Lincolnshire: the quotation from the entry under 'infidelity'. Cited with gratitude to the curators. Other Stukeley manuscripts are at the Freemasons' Hall, London and date largely from the 1720s and 1730s. Stukeley regularly attended the Royal Society during Newton's presidency and long after.

23. British Library, MSS ADD 30867, 9 August 1746 from the Baron d'Holbach to John Wilkes, written from Leiden.

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