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But if the dynastically induced demise of the Jesuits did not occur precisely as conceived by Choiseul in 1767, the existence of such an evolving plan, even far earlier than in 1767, is no more subject to doubt than that of a very specific kind of Augustinian-Jansenist complicity from the very beginning of the anti-Jesuit campaign in late 1758 until the end.

While the Bourbon and Portuguese envoys and so-called Crown Cardinals never succeeded in imposing any specific conditions for their support of Cardinal Ganganelli's candidacy for the papal Tiara in the conclave during the spring of 1769, Charles III contrived to extract from him a written promise 'to justify to the whole world Your Majesty's wise conduct in expelling the restive and rebellious Jesuits' as early as 30 November of the same year.26 Thereafter only sudden death could have released Clement XIV from an obviously conscience-encumbering obligation, although he delayed its execution for three years by alleging now the appeals of a pro-Jesuit French clergy, now the opposition of the other Catholic states - even the opposition of Protestant Prussia and Orthodox Russia. It was not a very edifying sight when the Spanish envoy Jose Momno, later the Count ofFloridablanca, virtually dictated the text of the brief Dominus ac Redemptor dated 21 July 1773 while generously distributing Spanish gold to the pope's inner circle in order to get the better of his final scruples.

A Roman triumph for the Jansenist International, the papal dissolution of the Society of Jesus was to be its passion week as well. The spectacle of the humiliation of the papacy - and one of Italy's few native states - at the hands of the Bourbon dynasty with Habsburg acquiescence was to transform many philo-Jansenist and reformist Italian clergymen into ardent advocates ofpapal prerogatives and purveyors of an allied neo-Baroque spirituality, while the dissolution of the Jesuits added numbers of talented angry ex-Jesuits to the ranks of an ever angrier Ultramontanist International. Against such polemical periodicals as the Florentine Ecclesiastical Annals and the Viennese Church News that modelled themselves on - and borrowed copy from - the increasingly international Jansenist Ecclesiastical News, ex-Jesuits took up positions as editors of militantly pro-papal periodicals such as Francescantonio Zaccaria's Ecclesiastical Journal of Rome and Francois-Xavier de Feller's Political and Literary Journal. Meanwhile the infernal cycle of action and reaction produced the anti-Jansenist pontificate of Pius VI in 1775. Coming hard on the heels of that of Clement XIV, this pontificate further alienated Italian Augustinians, driving Jansenists into anti-papal alliances with dynastic states in need of a theological justification for Gallican-like extensions of regalian rights such as those exemplified by 'Josephism' in Austria and the Duke Peter Leopold's Jansenist-inspired Synod of Pistoia in Habsburg Tuscany.

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