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all sides lost sight of the harm to their credibility that such a war of attrition was likely to cause.

Notes

1. W R. Ward, Christianity under the ancien régime, 1648-1789 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 5.

2. Quoted in Norbert Jonard, Milan au siecle des Lumières (Dijon: University of Dijon, 1974), p. 50.

3. Hanns Gross, Romein the age of the Enlightenment: The post-Tridentine syndrome and the ancien regime (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Cf. the emphasis in Anthony David Wright, The early modern papacy: From the Council of Trent to the French Revolution, 1564-1789 (Harlow: Longman, 2000), especially pp. 7-8. See also Owen Chadwick, The popes and European revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).

4. Dries Vanysacker, Cardinal Giuseppe Garampi (1725-92), an Enlightened Ultramontane (Brussels: Brepols, 1995), p. 11.

5. Charles C. Noel, 'Clerics and crown in Bourbon Spain, 1700-1808: Jesuits, Jansenists, and Enlightened reformers', in James E. Bradley and Dale K. Van Kley (eds.), Religion and politics in Enlightened Europe (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001), p. 144.

6. See S. Schama's review of T. C. W Blanning, Reform andrevolution in Mainz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974) in the Times Literary Supplement (28 March 1975), p. 333.

7. Joseph himself was 'certainly not a Jansenist, but a sort of Christian Stoic': W R. Ward, 'Late Jansenism and the Habsburgs', in Bradley and Van Kley (eds.), Religion and politics in Enlightened Europe, p. 180. See Derek Beales, Joseph II, vol. 1: In the shadow of Maria Theresa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. 192, for the emperor's sense of the divine voice speaking within him.

8. Jeremy Black, Eighteenth-century Europe, 2nd edn (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 1999), p. 241.

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