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and Hinduism 482 and Islam 478-9

444-7, 592

and the natural and the sacred 188-9 orthodoxy and nonconformity 41-3,110 and popular religion 189-95,199 and post-Revolutionary restoration 592-3 and radicalism 42-3 renewal 6-7, 329-47, 577-9 and role of women 167-75 and science 252, 253-4, 255, 256 and sermons 130,133-4,135,136-7,139-40, 142

and sexuality 174-5,182-4 and slavery 522 and work ethic 82-5

see also Calvinism; clergy; confessionalism; Congregationalism; Lutheranism; Methodism; Pietism; Puritanism; Reformed Church and under individual countries Providence, divine 189, 258, 273, 499, 502, 508

Prussia: and Christian reunion movements 361-2 and education 159,162 and Jesuits 303 and Jews 222 and Pietism 37-8, 40 and Protestantism 47,336, 337,352-3, 593 and resistance to Napoleon 590 Pufendorf, Samuel 48,352 pulpits 240 Puritanism 47

and American Indians 399, 402 and antislavery movement 418, 522 and Half-Way Covenant 341,399 and literacy 150

in North America 168,175,394, 397-400,

405, 407

and Protestant work ethic 82 and role of women 167-8,169,398 and sermons 141 and sexuality 175 toleration 354

Quakers: and antislavery movement 170, 520, 522, 526, 528-9 and Enlightenment 269 and literacy 150 and marriage 173 and mission 181

in North America 395, 404, 501, 502 persecution 170,171,355 and role of women 128,167,169-70 Quebec, and Roman Catholicism 392,393,

395, 404

Queen Anne's Bounty 122 Quesnel, Pasquier 308 quietism 177, 332-4

Raab, Heribert 28 radicalism: political 364

Protestant 42-3, 502 Ramsay, James 525, 528 Rapp, Johann George 585 RealPadroado 315

reason: and Christian Enlightenment 284-8, 290-1, 292, 294-5, 296 and Enlightenment 268, 269, 498, 507 and French Revolution 553 and revelation 5, 6, 49 and revivalism 408, 581 and women 171,178,179 reawakening see Pietism; renewal; revivalism R├ęcollets, in Canada 393, 403 Reddy, William 298 Reformation, and church building 226 Reformed Church: architecture 235 clergy 121

in France 349-50, 566-7 in Germany 352,353 in Habsburg Empire 351 and Lutheranism 361-2 in Netherlands 196-8, 337-8 in North America 338-9,394,396, 404 orthodoxy and revivalism 338,340,344 and sermons 133 see also Calvinism regalism: in France 22, 310 in Italy 27, 304 in Spain 24-5,319 relativism, cultural 5 relics 158

Relief Church (Scotland) 69 religion, civic 498-9, 552 religion, natural 6, 216, 295 religion, popular 47, 94,185-204 and acculturation 186-7,195

approaches to 185-7 confessional attitudes to 192,196 in East Asia 452

and French Revolution 562-3, 569 in Latin America 379-86, 390 in modern debates 201-4 natural and supernatural 187-9 reform 193-5, 571 and social discipline 199-201 see also superstition Remonstrants 354,363 renewal, Christian 6-8,10, 591-4

and Enlightenment 8, 41, 272-3, 283-99 and French Revolution 554, 557-64, 576-81 and millenarianism 581-5 and national identity 587-91 and prophetic movement 582-5 Protestant 329-47 and science 8, 272-3, 289 see also Pietism; revivalism Renner, Melchio 429, 430-1 republicanism: in France 298 and free-thinking 278-9 in Ireland 65,125 in North America 508 and Protestantism 17,18, 22 and repatriated African Americans 422 resistance movements 588-91 retreats 162,385, 454 reunion, Christian 361-3 revelation: progressive 288

and reason 5, 6, 49, 291, 295 revivalism 110-11 in Africa 417

and African Americans 409, 418, 419, 422 and American Revolution 507-8, 513 and antislavery movement 519, 522, 524, 526

in Bohemia 336 and children 335,341 in England 342-3,345-7 and evangelicalism 128, 335 in Hungary 337 and Lutheran Orthodoxy 329 in Netherlands 337-8

in North America 7,10, 338-42, 347, 403-10, 501

and Salzburg Protestants 336-7,351 in Scotland 339,342,344-5 in Silesia 335-6 in Wales 343-4,346, 347 revolution 8; see also American Revolution; French Revolution rhetoric, and preaching 134,135,141,144 Rhode Island, and religious toleration 353,

367,396, 501, 511 Rhodes, Alexandre de 181, 449 Ricci, Matteo 470

and accommodation 462, 463, 476, 481 and Buddhism 487 and Confucianism 488-9, 492 influence 401 Ricci, Scipione de' 27, 93 ricettizio system (Italy) 98-9 Richardson, Samuel 293, 294 Richelieu, Cardinal 15,18, 74,392 Riegger, Paul Joseph Ritter von 29 Rites Controversy: China 462-3, 482, 491-2

India 482, 491-2 Rivier, Anne Marie 176, 568 Robert, Daniel 563 Roberts, Michael 124 Robertson, William 5, 283, 483-4, 485 Robespierre, Maximilien 554, 557 Rochemont, Daniel de 294, 295 Rock, Johann Friedrich 43 Roda y Arrieta, Manuel de 320, 321 Roederer, Pierre-Louis 214, 217, 219 Roger, Jacques 264 Rojas y Spinola, Bishop 16 Roman Catholicism: Africanization 531-2 and architecture 227, 228-30, 232-5, 236-8,

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