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of the colonial authorities, the missions had championed the interests of the Africans against the whites. In the course of his investigations Philip found that the mission station at Bethelsdorp had been converted into what he called a virtual 'slave lodge', with the Africans there drafted as labourers at a work camp. For their back-breaking work, they were paid pittance or no wages at all, and the women and children were abandoned. A more bewildered and forlorn people he had not met. Everything the missionaries had laboured so valiantly to establish and to promote was torn down by a ruthless colonial government. The defining issue for the missions became African advancement, precisely the ground the government had chosen for throwing down the gauntlet. Without choosing it, missions had the race problem tied round their necks like an albatross, and it is a credit to Vanderkemp and to Philip, his worthy successor, that they refused to flinch from the challenge. Predictably, the race problem went on to dominate the religious and political landscape in South Africa throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Philip's book, Researches in South Africa, contains a robust defence of his evangelical and humanitarian views.

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