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was commonly thought to have been effected via the influence of regalistic councillors such as the first minister Guillaume Du Tillot, the architect of the expulsion of the Jesuits in Parma. Influenced by 'filosofi' - so argued the Italian counter-revolutionary pamphleteer Giovanni Marchetti - perfidious councillors had flattered princes with the prospect of an indefinite extension of their power at the expense of the pope, the Jesuits - indeed the whole clergy - as rightful compensation for the clerical usurpation of public functions during the medieval centuries of 'feudal ignorance'.3

The historiography of the expulsions has consisted largely of variations on these already contemporary themes: the influence of the Enlightenment and the extension of secular authority. The themes are not unrelated to each other. For the suppression of the Jesuits aided and abetted the extension of the state's authority over education and the conduct ofmissions, and thus also the subordination of hitherto 'spiritual' functions to secular ends that the cause of 'Enlightenment' generally stood for. Nor are these themes wrong as far as they go. In acting as they did, the 'Enlightened' absolutists of eighteenth-century Europe indeed aspired to extend their putatively God-given secular power at the expense of the church, while what they did also elicited the applause of would-be Enlighteners, not a few of them princely councillors and advisors themselves.

That secular power was also thought to be God-given, however, points to the presence of a kind of Christian secularization at work in the expulsions in the form of a group of actors traditionally given less play in the story. These actors are adherents to a Jansenist movement - the Jesuits' old French nemesis - that had crossed French boundaries and gone 'international' in the second half of the century of lights. In its baggage, Jansenism took a Gallican ecclesiology that, while seemingly limited to France by definition, also acquired an increasingly international vocation in the eighteenth century. The 'solicitor' spelled outin d'Alembert's text was 'Jansenism', while Jansenists, along with the inevitable ph.ilosoph.es and freemasons, figure prominently in the plot diagnosed and denounced by Marchetti that had brought about the French Revolution.

This finger pointing is not totally off the mark. The international expulsion and suppression of the Jesuits was, among other scenarios, one of the last encounters in the multi-secular conflict between Jesuits and Jansenists. That is also to say that the story may be told not only prospectively as announcing the French Revolution - the more standard story - but also retrospectively as one of the last battles over the legacy of the Council of Trent. Yet the retrospective version of the story inevitably intersects with

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