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in Habsburg Empire 29,110,125 and Jansenism 7, 179, 308 in Latin America 383-4,385-6 and Pietism 110-11,171 and Protestant revival 579, 581 see also religion, popular Lamennais, FĂ©licite de 261, 592 Langlois, Claude 568 Laplace, Pierre-Simon de 260, 280 Latin: in education 154,158 and sermons 139,141 and training of clergy 115 Latin America 373-91 and architecture 236,388 and black religiosity 386-7 and Catholic missions 3, 4,181 and church and state 373,374-8 and diocesan clergy 390-1 and economic status of the church 374-5 eighteenth-century missions 387-90 and mixed-race children (castas) 184 and popular religion 379-86,390 and religious orders 375-8, 383 and religious reforms 378-9 wars of independence 390-1 Latitudinarianism 62-3, 64, 285, 286 and church unity movements 367 and toleration 357,358, 359 Lavater, Johann Caspar 143, 216,334-5 law: and Church of England 59-60

and Enlightenment 50 Law, William 61,334 Lazarists 97,104,107,133,162, 467 Le Brebeuf, Jen 400, 401

Le Clerc, Jean 257, 357 Le Mercier, Jacques 232, 233 Le Paige, Louis-Adrien 313,314 Lead, Jane 171 Lee, Ann 173 Lehmann, Hartmut 584 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 48, 251, 254 and Christian reunion 361 and creation 258 and infinity 254-5, 257 Leopold I of Austria 23, 28 Leopold II of Austria, see Peter Leopold Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 48,49,51, 288,352 Lettres Patentes (1784) 212-13 Levellers 167,169 liberalism, theological 364 Liberia, and resettlement of slaves 426 Liguori, St Alphonsus 179-80, 200 Limborch, Philip van 357, 366, 368 limpieza de sangre 90,101 Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) 260 literacy 147-51,179,343, 529 literary criticism 49 literature, and Enlightenment 50 liturgy: and architecture 226, 240, 245 and music 245 and preaching 130,139,140 Protestant 52, 56,130,189, 226 Roman Catholic 149,194, 240, 245 Livingstone, David 416 Lloyd, William 56 LMS see London Missionary Society Locke, John 48, 257, 269,368

and Christian Enlightenment 276, 285, 286, 289, 290

and church unity movements 366 and liberty 50 and toleration 357-8, 359 Lombardy: and clergy 92, 93, 99,105

and education 155 London, St Paul's Cathedral 230, 231 London Missionary Society (LMS) 328, 427,

London Society for Promoting Christianity

Amongst Jews 584 Longhena, Baldassare 228, 241 Loreto, shrine 188, 200 Louis XIV of France: and China 461 and church and state 22-3, 28,141, 270 and Jansenism 178, 311, 333 and papacy 23, 308

and Protestantism 16,17, 22, 265, 266-8,

270, 349-50

Louis XV of France: and church and state 23,

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