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the slave trade. But in the attention he paid to the value of African languages in the work of missions, Thompson unwittingly signalled a crucial shift to African cultural materials as the appropriate framework for the transmission of Christianity. He stressed the importance of developing Fanti-language education, and, appropriately, arranged for three Fanti boys to accompany him to England for education. Two of them died, but the third, Philip Quaque, was ordained in the Anglican Church and in 1765 returned to Cape Coast where he served as schoolmaster, catechist, and missionary. He died in 1816 in those positions.

The Danes had also been involved at the fort of Christiansborg, Accra, a garrison fortress held by Denmark from which they regulated trade in the adjacent area. The chaplains who arrived in the Gold Coast were not strictly speaking missionaries, but, significantly enough, some took a close interest in African life and religion. For example, Wilhelm Johann Mueller, a chaplain between 1662 and 1670 at Fort Frederiksborg near Cape Coast, argued for missionary effort among the local population and asked for the Bible to be translated into the local languages. He followed his own advice when he collected some 800 practical words and phrases. He also demonstrated knowledge of local religious practices, the first such attempt at understanding by an outsider.

Two other chaplains based at Christiansborg found the restricted boundaries offortress life too confining, and ventured further afield. One was Johann Rask, who servedbetween 1709 and 1712, and the otherwas H. S. Monrad, who served between 1805 and 1809. Both condemned slavery and the trade that fostered it, and both expressed the classic doubt about the viability of establishing the church in Africa under the compromising shadow of European commercial enclaves. Without a missionary organization behind them, they did the next best thing and encouraged African pupils to enrol in the school at the castle.

Among the bright talents drawn to the school were William Amo of Axim who later obtained a doctorate degree at Wittenberg University, Jacob Capitein who graduated from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands (producing for his dissertation an ironic defence of the slave trade as not being inconsistent with Christian teaching), Frederck Svane who graduated from the University of Copenhagen, and Jacob Protten. Such early missionary work was the first bloom of the evangelical awakening that eventually spread to Africa. Svane belonged to the Ga tribe and returned with a Danish wife to serve briefly at Christiansborg as a catechist and teacher before returning to Denmark in 1746.

Jacob Protten also returned to the Gold Coast but disappeared into neighbouring Togoland, later to re-emerge for a brief spell in faraway Germany. He was then at Christiansborg between 1756 and 1761, and again from 1765 until

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