Seminaries for training the Catholic clergy should also be included among the specialized schools. Initially existing only as modest retreats for those about to be ordained, some gradually turned into full teaching institutions, so that only a fraction of future priests went on to the university. This development, although not general, was no doubt aided by theological conflicts, especially those related to the anti-Jansenist bull Unigenitus. Bishops wished to control the formation of their clergy and to be certain of the theological stance of seminary professors. Thus, in France the Lazarists and Sulpicians were particularly assiduous in following the Roman directives. In sum, two separate tracks began to emerge for secondary and higher education, with the universities broadly teaching the 'pure' sciences, while the specialized schools - like those training 'surgeons' - taught applied sciences and technical skills. Nevertheless, universities were also obliged to face social demand for specialized knowledge. This was reflected in the increase in the number of chairs - notably in German universities - in fields such as political economy, modern languages, administrative sciences, and national civil law. The growth of the percentage of students graduating, compared to the number of initial registrants, is also significant. There was a growing balance between the demand for certain specialized skills and the supply of individuals trained at the university for such professions as that of pastor, judge, lawyer, and physician.

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