Church and state in Germany and the Habsburg Empire

The pronounced state loyalties of Catholic clergy in most German principalities is well attested, a feature of the political landscape even before the Treaty of Westphalia, and it was nowhere stronger than in the three electoral principalities of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne where state and church alike were governed by their prince-archbishop. The Elector of Mainz, the senior archiepiscopal elector, was also the arch-chancellor of the empire, giving him a diplomatic status that far outweighed his territorial importance. His colleagues

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